Fire alarm systems are electronic systems that independently, without a presence of a person, serve for early detection of smoke or fire, and visual and acoustic signals that alert about fire hazard in the facility and notify competent services (fire department, security guard). Early alarming reduces the possibility of people suffering, and prevents significant financial damage. Regulations that address fire protection are among the most numerous and pervasive in a wide range of activities – from construction and insurance to hospitality and energy. Many used them for fire protection precisely because the consequences of fires are large, and often irreplaceable. Special regulations for fire protection and the use of smoke alarms are obligatory due to increased risk for catering facilities, high buildings and warehouses. It is important to know that a fire alarm system must be designed by an authorized designer to ensure its efficiency in specific application conditions and regularly maintained and serviced.
ACT PREVENTIVELY! The installation of the system protects lives and health of people and property, but also saves on property insurance policy premiums.
Fire alarm systems differ in size and work technology, and what type will be used depends on the application, facility type, fire risk, number of people in the facility, regulations and investor’s wishes, and can be selected between the conventional fire alarm system and the analogue addressable fire alarm system (typically for medium and large facilities), as systems that work together with anti-burglary systems, or as one or more stand-alone fire detectors (typically for smaller facilities such as shops, offices, apartments and houses).
The main difference between a conventional an analogue addressable fire alarm systems is that both are in general are alert systems for fire, but the analogue addressable system can accurately determine the location where the facility has been exposed to a fire, smoke, or some second condition for alarming users or staff, while the conventional fire alarm system only alerts where in a facility (sector) the alarm condition has been triggered. Namely, which fire alarm system loop is alerted, that is, which loop revealed the appearance of smoke or fire. Conventional systems are cost-effective and reliable for smaller applications, while analogue addressable systems are more modern and safer because they are faster for addressability, more sensitive due to the ability to set the alarm level of each detector, more reliable because they adapt to environmental conditions and occur when cleaning is needed, more flexible due to programming grouping options for more precise evacuation management, and easier to install.
The basic configuration of the system consists of a fire detector, central processing and control unit, and a signaling and fire alarm device.
The detectors are the most important part of the system, and the reaction rate depends on the speed of the detectors, and its final outcome. There are several types of detectors such has aspiration, laser, smoke detectors (optical, ionization), heat detectors, flame detectors, etc. The decision on which type of detector to use depends on the configuration of the protected area, values in the area, the required fire detection rate, fire endurance, types of materials inside the space and the manner in which they burn, and possible sources of false alarms (moisture, dust, smoke, high temperature). In case of occurrence of some fire proportions (smoke, heat, flame), the detector will forward this information to a central unit that will activate programmed execution functions such as siren and flash activation, alerting the person in charge, closing the fire doors, lowering fire dampers, lowering of elevators and the other.
The fire alarm center takes into account the peripheral elements of the fire alarm system, remembers the states, generates events, and takes care of the overall system functioning. The task of the fire alarm center is to remember the characteristics assigned to other elements of the anti-burglary system, and as most modern fire extinguishing centers are equipped with communicators, the fire alarm center also takes care of communication data, whether it is a simple telephone alert or a mobile user, or a high speed TCP/IP communication to the central voicemail service or to its own user infrastructure.